412-432-4000...DONATE LIFE TO HIGHMARK...BLOODY HANDS OF KRISTIN EMERY, KDKA...412-313-3080...LE-JIT JITNEY OUT OF BELLEVUE 15202...ASK KDKA TO TELL THE TRUTH...YOU ARE A LIVING ORGAN BANK...RATM & JESSE VENTURA 2016...PITTSBURGH DOWNTOWN PIA PIT AIRPORT...Recreation Park (1887–1890) Exposition Park (1891–1909) Forbes Field (1909–1969) Three Rivers Stadium (1970–2000) PNC Park (2001–present) SteelersForbes Field (1933–1963) Pitt Stadium (1958–1970) Three Rivers Stadium (1970–2000) Heinz Field (2001–present) PenguinsCivic/Mellon Arena (1967–2010) Consol Energy Center (2010–present) PITTBIRD STUNT KITE DUEL TRI TRIPLE QUAD LINE TAILLESS STABLE STABILE TRAIN FLOCK BIRD...KDKA HIDES HIGHMARK MURDER...ritarevolution rita revolution FUKDKA RITAREVOLUTI0N RITA REVOLUTION ANNIE GET YOUR GUN _______________________________________________________________________

NEED 24 TO DEMAND TRUTH FROM KDKA...

HUFFINGTON POST COOBORATION, CLICK HERE.

FLEETWOOD MAC LE-JIT JITNEY 15202...412-313-3080

16 AUGUST 2011...JUDGE KATHERINE B EMERY MAKES

FRAUDULENT GUARDIANSHIP RULING,

ENSURING RITA'S MURDER BY HIGHMARK/WPAHS.

17 AUGUST 2011...KRISTIN EMERY POSTS RESUME.

Unhijacked (DATED) Kristin Emery Posts Resume.

MAY 2012...KRISTIN EMERY GETS KDKA JOB.

JUNE 2012...KDKA DOES FEATURE OF JUDGE EMERY.

KDKA tried for decades to get

this rising young meteorological STAR...

All the while healthy Rita's being terrorized

24/7 to an eventual planned death, this

mother fucker's getting plastic surgery

for her in-the-bag KDKA JOB.

Rita Joanne Conley was murdered from 211 until 911

THAT'S 2/01/11 UNTIL 9/10/11,

by Dr Syed Rasheedullah Hussaini...ALL OF IT COVERED UP

BY THE US GOVERNMENT, KDKA, USDHS,

USDOJ, FBI, BEI, PAOAG,

AND THE ZAPPALA MAFIA,

INCLUDING DAN ONORATO AND KEN MELANI,

BOTH PAID OFF BY HIGHMARK

AND DON'T FORGET JOHN W PAUL, CEO OF AHN

(ALSO THE UPMC-REJECTED FOUNDER OF UPMC)...

and many others, such as the ACMS

and PA DEPT OF HEALTH etc.

Also Tom Corbett was involved

as the PA AG at beginning of murder,

and PA AG Linda L Kelly

(whom Corbett was forced to drag to Harrisburg)

was involved overseeing the murder process by Dr John W Hoyt

until its successful culmination on 9/10/11.

and all WPAHS employees suck the ELITE DICK,

KEEPING QUIET TO KEEP THEIR WONDERFUL JOBS...

GO AHEAD AND ASK THEM.

Speaking of dicks, it's almost time once again

to suck the big pacifier on Sunday, as they tell you

ALL IS OK WITH THE USA, ISN'T IT SO WONDERFUL?!

How could Hillary murder 90% of US Citizens

(that she refers to as "THE EATERS")?

She could have the Supreme Court rule that you

are all BRAIN-DEAD, and she would be correct...

Then she'd have her Military mow you all down

for your organs, making her a quadrillionaire.

I'm slightly kidding here, but with yinz LEMMINGS,

IT'S ACTUALLY POSSIBLE!

At this very moment, there is NO ONE

guarding AMERICANS' "FREEDOMS"...

What happened to my fully-conscious healthy WIFE,

from 211 until 911, PROVES that THIS GOVERNMENT,

as well as ALL GOVERNMENTS OF THE ENTIRE WORLD

ARE 100% CONTROLED BY THE

ROCKEFELLER/ROTHSCHILD/CHENEY/BUSH/CLINTON

BILDERBERG CLUB, down to the last each and every

one of US...WAKE UP NOW OR DIE VIA THE CLUB

(probably by HILLARY CUNT CLINTON).

COME ON NRA, THIS IS YOUR CHANCE TO SHINE

OR BURN OUT LIKE A LITTLE BITCH.

TED NUGENT...Where are YOU?!

Time to go JESSE VENTURA in 2016.

Start machine gun at 3:11 of FOO.

This is # of healthy "unproductive patients" killed per day

BY THE AMA, KDKA, AND THE USA.

“In the beginning of a change the patriot is a

scarce man, and brave, and hated and scorned.

When his cause succeeds, the timid join him,

for then it costs nothing to be a patriot.”

― Mark Twain

In the mean time, FUCK YOU COWARDS.

and don't call ME when you are bucking

your "life-support", BECAUSE YOU DON'T NEED

LIFE-SUPPORT, and you can't tell your family

because the unneeded tracheostomy bypasses

YOUR VOCAL CORDS, or 2 plastic tubes down your

THROAT prevent you from TALKING, as they

HYPERVENTILATE YOU INTO COMPLETE SUBMISSION,

and you know that you're headed for a scam

MORPHINE OVERDOSE, whether it takes several days

OR SEVERAL DECADES.

Then you'll say (TO YOURSELF) "WHY DIDN'T I SIGN

THAT MOTHER FUCKER'S PETITIONS"?

Pick a medical scam...any scam below:

***********************************

***********************************

***********************************

***********************************

***********************************

National Rifle Association From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Page semi-protected This article is about the National Rifle Association based in the United States. For the UK organization, see National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom. National Rifle Association of America National Rifle Association.svg National Rifle Association logo Formation November 17, 1871 Headquarters Fairfax, Virginia Membership 5 million (as of May 2013) President James W. Porter II[1][2] Executive Vice President Wayne LaPierre Budget $231 million - total expenses (75% program services, 13.3% administrative costs, 11.7% fundraising costs) [3][4] Website NRA.org The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is an American nonprofit organization[5] founded in 1871 that promotes firearm competency, safety, and ownership, as well as police training, marksmanship, hunting and self-defense training in the United States. The NRA is also one of the United States' largest certifying bodies for firearm safety training and proficiency training courses for police departments, recreational hunting, and child firearm safety. The organization publishes several magazines and sponsors marksmanship events featuring shooting skill and sports. The NRA is designated by the IRS as a 501(c)(4) with four 501(c)(3) charitable subsidiaries and a Section 527 lobbying group segregated fund: The NRA Political Victory Fund. The NRA controls through its board of trustees the following 501(c)(3) organizations: NRA Civil Rights Defense Fund, NRA Foundation Inc., NRA Special Contribution Fund (dba NRA Whittington Center), and NRA Freedom Action Foundation.[3][6][7][8] The NRA is also the parent organization of affiliated groups such as the Institute for Legislative Action (ILA). The NRA's political activity is based on the civil right to keep and bear arms, which is protected by the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution.[9] The group has a nearly century long record of influencing as well as lobbying for or against proposed firearm legislation on behalf of its members, and calls itself America's longest-standing civil rights organization.[10] Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the top three most influential lobbying groups in Washington.[8][11] NRA membership surpassed 5 million in May 2013.[12] Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Origins 1.2 Rifle clubs 1.3 Lobbying 1.4 Museum 2 Safety and sporting programs 2.1 NRA firearms safety programs 2.2 Shooting sports 2.3 Instructors 2.4 Relationship with other organizations 2.5 Fundraising and shooting support 3 Political advocacy 3.1 Legislation 3.2 Lawsuits 3.3 Endorsements 4 Publications 5 Current leadership and policies 6 Finances and organizational structure 7 Public opinion 7.1 Criticism 7.2 Notable members 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links History Origins The National Rifle Association was first chartered in the state of New York on November 17, 1871[13] by Army and Navy Journal editor William Conant Church and General George Wood Wingate. Its first president was Civil War General Ambrose Burnside, who had worked as a Rhode Island gunsmith, and Wingate was the original secretary of the organization. Church succeeded Burnside as president in the following year. Union Army records for the Civil War indicate that its troops fired about 1,000 rifle shots for each Confederate soldier hit, causing General Burnside to lament his recruits: "Out of ten soldiers who are perfect in drill and the manual of arms, only one knows the purpose of the sights on his gun or can hit the broad side of a barn."[14] The generals attributed this to the use of volley tactics, devised for earlier, less accurate smoothbore muskets.[15][16] Recognizing a need for better training, Wingate traveled to Europe and observed European armies' marksmanship training programs. With plans provided by Wingate, the New York Legislature funded the construction of a modern range at Creedmore, Long Island, for long-range shooting competitions. Wingate then wrote a marksmanship manual.[14] After winning the British Empire championship at Wimbledon, London, in 1874, the Irish Rifle Team issued a challenge through the New York Herald to riflemen of the United States to raise a team for a long-range match to determine an Anglo-American championship. The NRA organized a team through a subsidiary amateur rifle club. Remington Arms and Sharps Rifle Manufacturing Company produced breech-loading weapons for the team. Although muzzle-loading rifles had long been considered more accurate, eight American riflemen won the match firing breech-loading rifles. Publicity of the event generated by the New York Herald helped to establish breech-loading firearms as suitable for military marksmanship training, and promoted the NRA to national prominence.[14] Eight U.S. Presidents have been NRA members. They are Ulysses S. Grant, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Richard M. Nixon, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush.[17] Rifle clubs The NRA organized rifle clubs in other states, and many state National Guard organizations sought NRA advice to improve members' marksmanship. Wingate's markmanship manual evolved into the United States Army marksmanship instruction program.[14] Former President Ulysses S. Grant served as the NRA's eighth President[18] and General Philip H. Sheridan as its ninth.[19] The U.S. Congress created the National Board for the Promotion of Rifle Practice in 1901 to include representatives from the NRA, National Guard, and United States military services. A program of annual rifle and pistol competitions was authorized, and included a national match open to military and civilian shooters. NRA headquarters moved to Washington, D.C. to facilitate the organization's advocacy efforts.[14] In 1903, Congress authorized the Civilian Marksmanship Program, which was designed to train civilians who might later be called to serve in the U.S. military.[20] Springfield Armory and Rock Island Arsenal began the manufacture of M1903 Springfield rifles for civilian members of the NRA in 1910.[21] The Director of Civilian Marksmanship began manufacture of M1911 pistols for NRA members in August 1912.[22] Lobbying The NRA formed its Legislative Affairs Division to update members with facts and analysis of upcoming bills,[23] after the National Firearms Act of 1934 (NFA) became the first federal gun-control law passed in the U.S.[24] The NRA supported the NFA along with the Gun Control Act of 1968 (GCA), which together created a system to license gun dealers and imposed taxes on the private ownership of machine guns.[25] Until the middle 1970s, the NRA mainly focused on sportsmen, hunters and target shooters, and downplayed gun control issues. However, passage of the GCA galvanized a growing number of NRA activists, including Harlon Carter. In 1975, it began to focus more on politics and established its lobbying arm, the Institute for Legislative Action (ILA), with Carter as director. The next year, its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund, was created in time for the 1976 elections.[26]:158 The 1977 annual convention was a defining moment for the organization and came to be known as "The Cincinnati Revolution."[27] Leadership planned to relocate NRA headquarters to Colorado and to build a $30 million recreational facility in New Mexico, but activists within the organization whose central concern was Second Amendment rights defeated the incumbents and elected Carter as executive director and Neal Knox as head of the ILA.[28][29] After 1977, the organization expanded its membership by focusing heavily on political issues and forming coalitions with conservative politicians, most of them Republicans.[30] With a goal to weaken the GCA, Knox's ILA successfully lobbied Congress to pass the Firearm Owners Protection Act (FOPA) of 1986 and worked to reduce the powers of the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF). In 1982, Knox was ousted as director of the ILA, but began mobilizing outside the NRA framework and continued to promote opposition to gun control laws.[31] At the 1991 national convention, Knox's supporters were elected to the board and named staff lobbyist Wayne LaPierre as the executive vice president. The NRA focused its attention on the gun control policies of the Clinton Administration.[32] Knox again lost power in 1997, as he lost reelection to a coalition of moderate leaders who supported movie star Charlton Heston, despite Heston's past support of gun control legislation.[33] In 1994, the NRA unsuccessfully opposed the Federal Assault Weapons Ban (AWB), but successfully lobbied for the ban's 2004 expiration.[34] Heston was elected president in 1998 and became a highly visible spokesman for the organization. In an effort to improve the NRA's image, Heston presented himself as the voice of reason in contrast to Knox.[35] Museum On August 2, 2013, the NRA National Sporting Arms Museum opened in Springfield, Missouri. It opened after nearly a decade of work by the NRA and Bass Pro Shops. There are almost 1,000 sporting artifacts from the 1600s to today, including some historically significant firearms from the NRA Museum Collection. The museum hosts firearms and artwork from the Remington Arms Company factory collection, a multi-million-dollar collection of U.S. Military sidearms, engraved Colt revolvers of the American frontier, the guns of Annie Oakley and firearms of U.S. Presidents like Teddy Roosevelt and Dwight Eisenhower.[36] Safety and sporting programs NRA firearms safety programs NRA headquarters in Fairfax, Virginia The NRA sponsors a range of programs designed to encourage the safe use of firearms. NRA hunting safety courses are offered in the United States for both children and adults. Classes focusing on firearm safety, particularly for women, have become popular. Intended for school-age children, the NRA's "Eddie Eagle" program encourages the viewer to "Stop! Don't touch! Leave the area! Tell an adult!" if the child ever sees a firearm lying around.[37] The NRA has also published an instructional guide, called The Basics of Personal Protection In The Home (published in 2000).[38] Shooting sports Prior to 1992, the NRA governed shooting sports in the United States. Spurred on by the Amateur Sports Act of 1978, the NRA mandated the establishment of National Teams and National Development Teams, a national coaching staff, year-round training programs, and a main training site for Olympic shooting sports. In 1992, USA Shooting replaced the NRA as the National Governing Body for Olympic shooting. In 2000 the NRA withdrew as a member of the National Three-Position Air Rifle Council. Additionally, the NRA is not directly involved in the practical pistol competitions conducted by the International Practical Shooting Confederation and International Defensive Pistol Association, or in cowboy action shooting, but each organization promotes membership with the NRA. The NRA hosts the National Rifle and Pistol Matches at Camp Perry, events which are considered to be the "world series of competitive shooting."[39] Commonly known as Bullseye or Conventional Pistol, shooters from the military as well as many top-ranked civilians gather annually in July and August for this competition. The NRA also sponsors its National Muzzle Loading Championship at the National Muzzle Loading Rifle Association's Friendship, Indiana facility. Additionally, the Bianchi Cup is hosted by NRA. The current NRA competitions division publishes its own rulebooks, maintains a registry of marksmanship classifications, and sanctions matches. The NRA also represents the United States on the International Confederation of Fullbore Rifle Associations (ICFRA) which administers the World Long-Range Rifle Team Championships, contested every four years for the PALMA trophy. Instructors The National Rifle Association issues credentials and trains firearm instructors in a variety of disciplines. NRA-credentialed instructors teach marksmanship, maintenance, and legalities.[40] NRA Instructors are commonly found at privately owned firearms ranges, and are often employed by the Boy Scouts of America on their summer camps.[citation needed] Relationship with other organizations The National Rifle Association maintains ties with other organizations such as the Boy Scouts of America and 4-H.[41] Involvement includes monetary donations, equipment to supply firearms ranges, and instructors to assist in their programs. Notably, the Boy Scouts of America has strict guidelines on who is allowed to operate their ranges, the recognized personnel groups including NRA Certified Instructors along with military and law enforcement.[42] The NRA joined the American Civil Liberties Union and several other civil liberties organizations in joint letters to President Clinton on 10 January 1994 and to the House Committee on the Judiciary on 24 October 1995 calling for federal law enforcement reforms drawing on lessons from the Waco siege and Ruby Ridge.[43] In 2013, the NRA joined the ACLU in a lawsuit against the federal government over the National Security Agency's surveillance of Americans, citing concerns that the NSA's data collection violates gun owners' privacy and could potentially be used to create a national gun registry.[44] Fundraising and shooting support Friends of NRA is a grassroots program that raises money for The NRA Foundation, the organization's 501(c)(3).[45] As part of Friends of NRA activities, volunteers in the United States organize committees and plan events in their communities. Established in 1990, The NRA Foundation raises tax-deductible contributions in support of a wide range of firearm related public interest activities. These activities are designed to promote firearms and hunting safety, to enhance marksmanship skills of those participating in the shooting sports, and to educate the general public about firearms in their historic, technological and artistic context. Funds granted by The NRA Foundation benefit a variety of constituencies throughout the United States including children, youth, women, individuals with disabilities, gun collectors, law enforcement officers, hunters, and competitive shooters.[46] Political advocacy The organization has referred to itself as the "largest and oldest civil rights organization in the United States."[47][48][49][50] The Institute for Legislative Action (ILA) is the lobbying branch of the National Rifle Association of America.[51] Members of Congress have ranked the NRA as the most powerful lobbying organization in the country several years in a row.[8] Chris W. Cox is the NRA's chief lobbyist and principal political strategist, a position he has held since 2002. In its lobbying for gun rights, the NRA asserts that the Second Amendment guarantees the right of individuals to bear arms. The NRA opposes measures which it believes conflict with the Second Amendment and the right to privacy as it relates to gun owners. Additionally, the organization has invoked the Tenth Amendment to defend gun rights. The NRA currently opposes most new gun-control legislation, calling instead for stricter enforcement of existing laws such as prohibiting convicted felons and violent criminals from possessing firearms and increased sentencing for gun-related crimes. The NRA also advocates for concealed carry in the United States. It also takes positions on non-firearm hunting issues, such as supporting wildlife management programs that allow hunting and opposing restrictions on devices like crossbows and leg hold traps.[citation needed] Internationally, the NRA opposed the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT).[52] As of January 2014, it supported efforts by Republican Sen. Jerry Moran to prevent funding the treaty unless ratified by the Senate, which opposes the treaty.[53] It has opposed Canadian gun registry,[54] supported Brazilian gun rights,[55][56] and criticized Australian gun laws.[57] Legislation The NRA supported the 1934 National Firearms Act (NFA), which regulated what were considered at the time "gangster weapons" such as machine guns, sawed-off shotguns, and silencers.[58][59][60] However, the organization's position on parts of the act has since changed.[61] The 1937 Pittman–Robertson Act was passed which put an excise tax on the manufacture of firearms. The Act created an excise tax that provides funds to each state to manage such animals and their habitats.[62][63] Prior to the creation of the Pittman–Robertson Act many species of wildlife were driven to or near extinction by hunting pressure and/or habitat degradation from humans.[62] The NRA supported the 1938 Federal Firearms Act (FFA) which established the Federal Firearms License (FFL) program. The FFA required all manufacturers and dealers of firearms who ship or receive firearms or ammunition in interstate or foreign commerce to have a license, and forbade them from transferring any firearm or most ammunition to any person interstate unless certain conditions were met.[64] As a practical matter, this did not affect the interstate commerce in firearms or ammunition. It was with the adoption of the Gun Control Act in 1968, which repealed most of the FFA, that the lawful interstate trade of firearms was limited almost entirely to persons holding a federal firearms license. The NRA supported and opposed parts of the Gun Control Act of 1968, which broadly regulated the firearms industry and firearms owners, primarily focusing on regulating interstate commerce in firearms by prohibiting interstate firearms transfers except among licensed manufacturers, dealers and importers. The law was supported by America's oldest manufacturers (Colt, S&W, etc.) in an effort to forestall even greater restrictions which were feared in response to recent domestic violence. The NRA supported elements of the law, such as those forbidding the sale of firearms to convicted criminals and the mentally ill.[65][66] In 2000, when evidence surfaced that the Pittman-Robertson Act sportsman's conservation trust funds were being mismanaged, NRA board member and sportsman, U.S. Representative Don Young (R-Alaska) introduced the Wildlife and Sport Fish Restoration Programs Improvement Act. The NRA backed bill passed the House 423-2 and became law on Nov. 1, 2000 and defines in what manner the monies can be spent. In 2004, the NRA opposed renewal of the Federal Assault Weapons Ban of 1994. The ban expired at midnight on September 13, 2004.[67] In 2005 President Bush signed into law the NRA backed Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act which prevent firearms manufacturers and dealers from being held liable for negligence when crimes have been committed with their products.[68] The NRA-backed Disaster Recovery Personal Protection Act of 2006 prohibited the confiscation of legal firearms from citizens during states of emergency.[69] In 2012, following the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, the NRA called on the United States Congress to appropriate funds for a "National School Shield Program," under which armed police officers would protect students in every U.S. school.[70][71] The NRA also announced the creation of a program that would advocate for best practices in the areas of security, building design, access control, information technology, and student and teacher training.[71][72][73][74] Lawsuits In 2005, the NRA, the Second Amendment Foundation (SAF), and others successfully sued New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin and others to stop gun seizures in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.[75][76][77][78][79][80] On October 4, 2006, U.S. President George W. Bush signed into law the Disaster Recovery Personal Protection Act. In November 2005, the NRA and other gun advocates filed a lawsuit challenging San Francisco Proposition H, which banned the ownership and sales of firearms. The NRA argued that the proposition overstepped local government authority and intruded into an area regulated by the state. The San Francisco County Superior Court agreed with the NRA position.[81] The city appealed the court's ruling, but lost a 2008 appeal.[82] In October 2008, San Francisco was forced to pay a $380,000 settlement to the National Rifle Association and other plaintiffs to cover the costs of litigating Proposition H.[83] After a 2008 ruling (District of Columbia v. Heller) by the U.S. Supreme Court that affirmed the individual right to own a handgun, the NRA has participated in lawsuits contesting such legislation.[84] In 2009 the NRA filed suit again (Guy Montag Doe v. San Francisco Housing Authority) in the city of San Francisco challenging the city's ban of guns in public housing. On January 14, 2009, the San Francisco Housing Authority reached a settlement with the NRA, which allows residents to possess legal firearms within a SFHA apartment building.[85] In 2010, the NRA sued the city of Chicago, Illinois (McDonald v. Chicago) and the Supreme Court ruled that like other substantive rights, the right to bear arms is incorporated via the Fourteenth Amendment to the Bill of Rights, and therefore applies to the states.[86][87] The NRA supported the case of Brian Aitken, a New Jersey resident sentenced to seven years in state prison for transporting guns without a carry permit.[88] The organization's Civil Rights Defense Fund helped to pay Brian Aitken's legal bills.[89] On December 20, 2010, Governor Chris Christie granted Aitken clemency and ordered Aitken's immediate release from prison.[90] In November of 2013, the city of Sunnyvale passed an ordinance banning certain ammunition magazines along with three other firearm related restrictions. The new ordinance requires city residents to "dispose, donate, or sell" any magazine capable of holding more than ten rounds within a proscribed period of time once the measure took affect. Measure C also requires: 1) city residents to report firearm theft to the police within 48 hours, 2) residents to lock up their guns at home, and 3) gun dealers to keep logs of ammunition sales.[91] The city of San Francisco then passed similar ordinances a short time later. The NRA has joined with local citizens to file suit and challenge these ordinances on Second Amendment grounds.[92][93] Additionally, the San Francisco Veteran Police Officers Association (SFVPOA) filed a lawsuit challenging San Francisco’s ban on the possession of standard-capacity magazines.[94] Endorsements The NRA's policy is that it will endorse any incumbent politician who supports its positions, even if the challenger supports them as well. For example, in the 2006 Senate Elections the NRA endorsed Rick Santorum over Bob Casey, Jr. even though they both had an "A" rating from the NRA Political Victory Fund, because Santorum was the incumbent.[95] The NRA endorsed a presidential candidate for the first time in 1980 backing Ronald Reagan over Jimmy Carter.[96][97] During the 2008 presidential campaign, the NRA spent $10 million in opposition to the election of then Senator Barack Obama.[98] The NRA was influential in the Colorado recall election of 2013, which resulted in the recall of two Colorado state senators who had passed gun control legislation in the state.[99] The Wall Street Journal viewed it as a major win for the NRA and a "stinging defeat" for Michael Bloomberg, who had supported the gun control measures and had contributed $350,000 to a Colorado committee formed to defeat the recall.[100] Prior to the election, ousted Democratic State Senator Angela Giron had said, "For Mayors Against Illegal Guns, if they lose even one of these seats, they might as well fold it up. And they understand that."[citation needed] Publications The NRA publishes a number of periodicals including [101] American Rifleman,[102] American Hunter, Shooting Illustrated, America's 1st Freedom and Shooting Sports USA. They have also published a collection of firearms titles through its affiliate Palladium Press LLC. Current leadership and policies The National Rifle Association is governed by a seventy-six member[103] board of directors. There are seventy-five elected Directors that each serve a three year term. One director, the seventy-sixth, is elected to serve as a cross-over Director and "holds office from the adjournment of the Annual Meeting of Members at which [this person] was elected until the adjournment of the next Annual Meeting of Members, or until a successor is elected and qualified." The directors choose the President, one or more Vice Presidents, and the Executive Vice President (the leading spokesman for the organization), along with a Secretary, and Treasurer from among the elected Directors. Additionally two other officers are elected by the Board of Directors, the Executive Director of the National Rifle Association General Operations and the Executive Director of the National Rifle Association Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA). Charlton Heston served famously as president from 1997 to 2003. Ron Schmeits served from 2009–2011 and was followed by David Keene. Jim Porter was elected as the current president in 2013.[104] John C. Sigler served 2007–2009. Sandra Froman served 2005–2007. Marion P. Hammer was the first female president, serving from 1995 to 1998.[105] The organization's executive vice president functions as chief executive officer. Wayne LaPierre has held this position since 1991. Chris W. Cox is the executive director of the NRA's lobbying branch, the Institute for Legislative Action. Cox has been appointed by LaPierre every year since 2002. Kyle Weaver is executive director of general operations.[106] James W. Porter II, an Alabama attorney, became the new president of the NRA on May 6, 2013, replacing Keene.[107] Finances and organizational structure The NRA is a 501(c)(4) membership association with four 501(c)(3) charitable subsidiaries and a Section 527 Political Action Committee (PAC) separate segregated fund. The NRA's four charities are NRA Civil Rights Defense Fund, NRA Foundation Inc., NRA Special Contribution Fund (dba NRA Whittington Center), and NRA Freedom Action Foundation.[3] The PAC is known as the "National Rifle Association Institute for Legislative Action" (or NRA-ILA) or just "ILA" among its members. According to published statements,[3] the NRA's total income for 2011 was $218,983,530, with total expenditures of $231,071,589. In 2010, the organization reported an income of $227.8 million with roughly $115 million in revenue generated from fundraising, sales, advertising and royalties, with the remainder originating from membership dues.[108] Corporate sponsors include a variety of companies such as outdoors supply, sporting goods companies, and firearm manufacturers.[108][109] Since 2005, the organization has received at least $14.8 million from more than 50 firearms-related firms[108] In 2008, Beretta exceeded $2 million in donations to the NRA, and in 2012, Smith & Wesson reached $1 million.[110] According to an April 2012 press release, Sturm, Ruger & Company raised $1.25 million through a program in which it donated $1 to the ILA for each gun it sold from May 2011 to May 2012.[110] In 2010, one of the organization's tax exempt 501(c)3 groups, the NRA Foundation, distributed $12.6 million to the NRA itself, and gave a further $5.5 million to local organizations such as 4-H and shooting clubs. The NRA Foundation has no staff and pays no salaries.[108][110] The NRA also raises a portion of its revenues through "round-up" programs, in which gun buyers and participating stores are invited to "round up" the purchase price to the nearest dollar as a voluntary contribution. According to the NRA's 2010 tax forms, the "round-up" funds have been allocated to both public interest programs and lobbying.[110] Public opinion In six out of seven surveys conducted by Gallup since 1993, the majority of Americans reported holding a favorable opinion of the National Rifle Association. A Gallup survey conducted in December 2012 found that 54% of Americans held a favorable opinion of the NRA, with Republicans responding significantly more positively about the organization than Democrats.[111] A Reuters/Ipsos poll conducted in April 2012 found that 82% of Republicans and 55% of Democrats see the NRA "in a positive light."[7][112][113] Criticism The NRA is criticized by gun control advocacy groups such as Americans for Responsible Solutions, the Brady Campaign, the Coalition to Stop Gun Violence, Mayors Against Illegal Guns, and Moms Demand Action. Some newspaper editorial boards like the New York Times,[114] Washington Post,[115] Los Angeles Times,[116] USA Today,[117] and the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette[118] have also criticized the NRA's positions. Members of the U.S. Democratic Party and liberal commentators have frequently criticized the National Rifle Association's policies. On occasion, politicians in the U.S. Republican Party and conservative commentators have also criticized the organization.[119][120][121] In 1969, U.S. President Richard M. Nixon resigned his "Honorary Life Membership" to the NRA.[citation needed] In 1995, former U.S. President George H. W. Bush also resigned his life membership to the organization after LaPierre sent him a fund-raising letter that referred to agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) as "jack-booted government thugs."[122][123] The NRA later apologized for the letter's language.[124] After the 2012 Sandy Hook shooting, New Jersey Governor Chris Christie called an online video created by the NRA "reprehensible" and said that it "demeans" the organization.[125] A senior lobbyist for the organization later characterized the video as "not particularly helpful" and "ill-advised."[126] However, the NRA has also been criticized by other gun rights groups for doing too little to get existing restrictions repealed. Organizations such as Gun Owners of America (GOA) and Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership (JPFO) have at times disagreed with NRA for what they perceive as its willingness to compromise on legislation that would restrict access to firearms.[127] Notable members In its history, the NRA has had numerous notable members and officers from a variety of professions. Among these people are eight Presidents of the United States, two Vice Presidents of the United States, two Chief Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court, and several U.S. Congressmen, as well as legislators and officials of state governments.[128] Past presidents of the association include Ambrose Burnside, U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant, Charlton Heston, and General Philip H. Sheridan. Other notable members include Olympian Karl Frederick, actress Whoopi Goldberg, civil rights activist Roy Innis, actor James Earl Jones, singer Miranda Lambert, NBA player Karl Malone, screen writer John Milius, actor Chuck Norris, musician Ted Nugent, Governor Sarah Palin, actor Kurt Russell,[129] and actor Tom Selleck.[130][131] See also Gun politics in the United States Gun safety Hunting Gun politics (worldwide) International advocacy groups with no connection to the NRABrazilViva Brazil Movement CanadaDominion of Canada Rifle Association Canada Firearms Centre Canadian gun registry Gun politics in Canada Possession and Acquisition Licence National Firearms Association ItalyFederazione Italiana Storia Armi e Tiro (FISAT) PhilippinesPROGUN SpainNational Arms Association of Spain (ANARMA) SwitzerlandProTell References 1.Jump up ^ New N.R.A. President Jim Porter - NYTimes.com. Takingnote.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-19. 2.Jump up ^ Article. Nra.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-19. 3.^ Jump up to: a b c d "Non Profit Report for the National Rifle Association of America". www.Guidestar.com. Retrieved 22 January 2013. 4.Jump up ^ "NRA Raises $200 Million as Gun Lobby Toasters Burn Logo on Bread". Businessweek. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 5.Jump up ^ "Law Enforcement Training". NRA. Retrieved May 29, 2013. 6.Jump up ^ "Universal Coin & Bullion Offers Matching Gift to Benefit NRA's Voice of Freedom Programs". NRA. 7.^ Jump up to: a b "Poll: Most Americans support NRA, right to protect self, but also a few gun limits". Reuters. April 13, 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012. 8.^ Jump up to: a b c "FORTUNE Releases Annual Survey of Most Powerful Lobbying Organizations". Timewarner.com. 1999-11-15. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 9.Jump up ^ See NRA, "Statement From the National Rifle Association" (April 16, 2007) 10.Jump up ^ NRA History 11.Jump up ^ James Q. Wilson et al. (2011). American Government: Institutions & Policies. Cengage Learning. p. 264. 12.Jump up ^ Korte, Gregory (May 4, 2013). "Post-Newtown, NRA membership surges to 5 million". USA Today. 13.Jump up ^ A Brief History of NRA. Nrahq.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-19. 14.^ Jump up to: a b c d e Craige, John Houston The Practical Book of American Guns (1950) Bramhall House pp.84–93 15.Jump up ^ Timeline of the NRA, The Washington Post, Jan. 12, 2013. 16.Jump up ^ "WALL OF FIRE – THE RIFLE AND CIVIL WAR INFANTRY TACTICS". U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. Retrieved 2012-04-29. 17.Jump up ^ "Did You Know?". National Rifle Association. Retrieved August 24, 2011. 18.Jump up ^ "NRA Institute for Legislative Action News Release". Nraila.org. 2003-03-27. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 19.Jump up ^ "The "Academy" Must Now Share Michael Moore`s Cinematic Shame". Nra-Ila. 2003-03-27. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 20.Jump up ^ "Civilian Marksmanship Sales". Retrieved 2011-04-13. 21.Jump up ^ Canfield, Bruce N. American Rifleman (September 2008) pp.72–75 22.Jump up ^ Ness, Mark American Rifleman (June 1983) p.58 23.Jump up ^ "National Rifle Association". Retrieved April 8, 2014. 24.Jump up ^ "National Firearms Act of 1934". Retrieved April 17, 2011. 25.Jump up ^ Jill Lepore (April 23, 2012). Battleground America: One nation, under the gun. The New Yorker. 26.Jump up ^ Shaiko, Ronald G.; Wallace, Marc A. (1998). "Going Hunting Where the Ducks Are: The National Rifle Association and the Grass Roots". In Bruce, John M.; Wilcox, Clyde. The Changing Politics of Gun Control. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-8476-8615-9. OCLC 833118449. Retrieved April 8, 2014. 27.Jump up ^ Neal Knox (2009). Neal Knox - The Gun Rights War. MacFarlane Press. pp. 299–300. 28.Jump up ^ Joel Achenbach, Scott Higham and Sari Horwitz, "How NRA's true believers converted a marksmanship group into a mighty gun lobby," Washington Post January 12, 2013 29.Jump up ^ Glen H. Utter, Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights (2000) pp 137-8, 161-3, 166-7, 186, 219-220 30.Jump up ^ Glen H. Utter, Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights (2000) pp 99-100, 162 31.Jump up ^ Neal Knox (2009). Neal Knox - The Gun Rights War. pp. 314–20. 32.Jump up ^ Glen H. Utter, Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights (2000) pp 62, 158, 162, 166-7 33.Jump up ^ Robert J. Spitzer, The Politics of Gun Control (2nd ed. 1998) p 88 34.Jump up ^ Richard Feldman (2011). Ricochet: Confessions of a Gun Lobbyist. John Wiley. p. 174. 35.Jump up ^ Emilie Raymond, From My Cold, Dead Hands: Charlton Heston and American Politics (2006) pp 262-68, quote p. 265 36.Jump up ^ "NRA opens Midwest museum showing nearly 1,000 firearms". Reuters. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 37.Jump up ^ "NRA Victories: Eighteen Million Safer Kids". National Rifle Association of America, Institute for Legislative Action. July 27, 2006. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 38.Jump up ^ Wormley, Jr., Stanton L. (2000). The basics of personal protection in the home (1st ed. ed.). Fairfax, VA: National Rifle Association. p. 223. ISBN 0935998993. 39.Jump up ^ Standifird, S.L. (2010-09-17). "Making his mark: El Paso sergeant member of winning national rifle team". El Paso Times. Retrieved 9 October 2010. "The national matches are considered America's World Series of competitive shooting and have been a tradition at Camp Perry since 1907" 40.Jump up ^ NRAHQ.org "Education & Training". Retrieved 2013-01-25. 41.Jump up ^ "National: 11 facts about the NRA". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 February 2013. 42.Jump up ^ "Why Teach the Eddie Eagle Program". NRA. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 43.Jump up ^ Kessler, Raymond G. Ideological and Civil Liberties Implications of the Public Health Approach to Guns, Crime and Violence. Retrieved 2 February 2013. 44.Jump up ^ Winter, Michael (September 4, 2013). "NRA joins spy lawsuit, says NSA creating gun registry". USA Today. 45.Jump up ^ "Friends of NRA Reaches $400 Million Milestone" (Press release). NRA. Retrieved 2011-07-01. 46.Jump up ^ "Charity Navigator Rating – The NRA Foundation". Charitynavigator.org. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 47.Jump up ^ Patrick, Brian Anse (2002). The National Rifle Association and the media: the motivating force of negative coverage 1. Peter Lang. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-8204-5122-0. 48.Jump up ^ Sapp, Rick (2010). "Lead Ammo-The Truth is Out There Somewhere". Gun Digest Book of Green Shooting: A Practical Guide to Non-Toxic Hunting and Recreation. Gun Digest Books. p. 115. ISBN 978-1-4402-1362-5. 49.Jump up ^ Horner, William T. (2005). Showdown in the Show-Me State: the fight over conceal-and-carry gun laws in Missouri. University of Missouri Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-8262-1587-1. 50.Jump up ^ NRA: The largest civil-rights group ever. Wnd.com (2007-04-12). Retrieved on 2013-07-19. 51.Jump up ^ "Who We Are, And What We Do". Institute for Legislative Action. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 52.Jump up ^ Editorial Board (September 30, 2013). "Containing the Conventional Arms Trade". New York Times. Archived from the original on October 1, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2014. 53.Jump up ^ "Sen. Moran Discusses Prohibiting U.N. Arms Trade Treaty Implementation on NRA Radio" (Press release). January 16, 2014. Archived from the original on February 7, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014. 54.Jump up ^ "NRA involved in gun registry debate". Ontario, Canada: CBC. September 13, 2010. Archived from the original on September 19, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2014. 55.Jump up ^ Kurlantzick, Joshua (September 17, 2006). "Global Gun Rights?". New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2014. 56.Jump up ^ Flannery, Nathaniel Parish (July 11, 2013). "What Are The NRA And Smith and Wesson Up To In Latin America?". Forbes. Archived from the original on May 31, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2014. 57.Jump up ^ O'Malley, Nick (December 12, 2013). "Sandy Hook massacre: Gun lobby targets Australia". Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney, Australia: Fairfax Media). Archived from the original on December 13, 2103. Retrieved February 7, 2014. 58.Jump up ^ History of the National Firearms Act, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco & Firearms. 59.Jump up ^ American Rifleman, March 1968, P. 22 60.Jump up ^ Winkler, Adam (10/03/11). "When the NRA Promoted Gun Control". Huffington Post. 61.Jump up ^ Suppressors-Good for Our Hearing. Nra-Ila (2011-11-17). Retrieved on 2013-07-19. 62.^ Jump up to: a b Bolen, Eric (2003). Wildlife Ecology and Management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. pp. Chapter 2. 63.Jump up ^ "Pittman–Robertson Act: Friend Of The Hunter & Hunted". National Rifle Association – Institute for Legislative Action. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 64.Jump up ^ The Federal Firearms Act. Saf.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-19. 65.Jump up ^ Knox, Neal (June 1966). "The Dodd Bill Both Fact ... and Fantasy". Guns & Ammo Magazine. 66.Jump up ^ Rosenfeld, Steven. "The NRA once supported gun control". Salon. 67.Jump up ^ Washingtonpost.com 68.Jump up ^ NRA. President Bush signs Protection of Lawful Commerce in Arms Act. 69.Jump up ^ "H.R.5441". The Library of Congress> THOMAS Home > Bills, Resolutions. 70.Jump up ^ "NRA releases statement on Conn. shooting". December 18, 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 71.^ Jump up to: a b "NRA December 21st Press Briefing". National Rifle Association. Retrieved 21 December 2012. 72.Jump up ^ Sullivan, Sean (December 21, 2012). "Put armed guards in every school, NRA leader Wayne LaPierre says". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 73.Jump up ^ Cushman Jr., John H. (December 22, 2012). "N.R.A. Calls for Armed Guards in Schools to Deter Violence". New York Times. 74.Jump up ^ "NRA calls for armed police officer in every school". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 21 December 2012. 75.Jump up ^ CCN.com, CNN transcript of NRA video interviews 76.Jump up ^ Youtube.com NRA video on YouTube of Katrina victims describing illegal confiscation of personal firearms. 77.Jump up ^ KHOU : 100,000 evacuees in Houston[dead link] 78.Jump up ^ "Officials grab guns, holdouts". Columbia Daily Tribune. 2005-09-09. Retrieved 2012-05-05. 79.Jump up ^ "Police prepare to use force". Azcentral.com. 2005-09-09. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 80.Jump up ^ Isabella Hunter (2012). You and Guns: a Conversation: The Practicalities of Responsible Gun Ownership. iUniverse. p. 40. 81.Jump up ^ Egelko, Bob; Goodyear, Charlie (2006-06-13). "Judge invalidates Prop. H handgun ban". SFGate. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 82.Jump up ^ [1][dead link] 83.Jump up ^ Matier, Phillip; Andrew Ross (October 27, 2008) "Newsom's city car makes trip to his wedding." San Francisco Chronicle. (Retrieved on 11-2-08.) 84.Jump up ^ "NRA, D.C. Residents Take District of Columbia Back to Court Over Gun Regulations". NRA-ILA. 2008-07-30. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 85.Jump up ^ Egelko, Bob (January 14, 2009). "San Francisco Housing Authority settles gun lawsuit". SFGate.com. Retrieved 2009-01-16. 86.Jump up ^ "In McDonald v. Chicago another Supreme Court landmark ruling on guns?". The Christian Science Monitor. 2010-03-01. 87.Jump up ^ Mears, Bill (June 28, 2009). "Court rules for gun rights, strikes down Chicago handgun ban". CNN. 88.Jump up ^ "Freed New Jersey Man Wants Gun Conviction Overturned". Fox News. 2010-12-23. 89.Jump up ^ http://briandaitken.com/content/2011/01/BrianAitken-NRA.jpg 90.Jump up ^ "NJ Gov. Chris Christie commutes Aitken's sentence". The Daily Caller. 2010-12-20. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 91.Jump up ^ Jones, Carolyn (November 6, 2013). "NRA vows to fight Sunnyvale's tough new gun law". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 16 December 2013. 92.Jump up ^ Michel, C.D. (December 2013). "Legal Front Lines: Bloomberg pushes his agenda locally in Calfornia. Sunnyvale voters approve anti-gun Measure C - Lawsuit imminent". The Firing Line (1008): 5. 93.Jump up ^ Staff. "California: Lawsuit Filed Challenging Sunnyvale Ban on Possession of Standard Capacity Firearm Magazines". http://www.nraila.org. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 94.Jump up ^ Richardson, Valerie. "Veteran cops challenge San Francisco’s gun limit laws". The Washington Times. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 95.Jump up ^ "Post-gazette.com". Post-gazette.com. 2006-10-25. Retrieved 2012-04-19. 96.Jump up ^ SCHMIDT, GINA M. "100 YEARS: REMEMBERING PRESIDENT RONALD REAGAN". http://www.nraila.org. Retrieved 2 February 2013. 97.Jump up ^ Facts on File 1980 Yearbook, p.844 98.Jump up ^ Eunice Moscoso, "NRA campaign against Obama carries $10 million price tag," Palm Beach Post, October 21, 2008) 99.Jump up ^ Siddiqui, Sabrina. "Colorado Recall Results: Democratic State Senators Defeated In Major Victory For NRA". Huffington Post. 100.Jump up ^ Jones, Ashby (September 11, 2013). "Gun-Rights Supporters Score Big Win in Colorado Recalls". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 13, 2013. 101.Jump up ^ NRA Publications as of 2009. 102.Jump up ^ American Rifleman website. 103.Jump up ^ The National Rifle Association of America Bylaws. Article IV, S. 1a: NRA. 2012. p. 12. 104.Jump up ^ Birmingham's Jim Porter, the NRA's new president, takes the helm at a critical moment | al.com. Blog.al.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-19. 105.Jump up ^ Marion P. Hammer, NRAWinningTeam.com 106.Jump up ^ Nra | Kyle Weaver. Home.nra.org (2011-04-22). Retrieved on 2013-07-19. 107.Jump up ^ "MILLER: Meet new NRA president Jim Porter". Washington Times. Retrieved 1 May 2013. 108.^ Jump up to: a b c d Peter Robison and John Crewdson. "NRA Raises $200 Million as Gun Lobby Toasters Burn Logo on Bread". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2013-01-30. 109.Jump up ^ Greene, Jeremy. "Friends of NRA Industry Supporter directory". http://www.friendsofnra.org. Retrieved 2 February 2013. 110.^ Jump up to: a b c d "Do Assault Weapons Sales Pay NRA Salaries?". FactCheck.org. January 15, 2013. 111.Jump up ^ Newport, Frank. "NRA Has 54% Favorable Image in U.S. - Republicans most positive about NRA; Democrats most negative". Gallup. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 112.Jump up ^ Clement, Scott. "Everything you need to know about Americans' views on guns — in 7 easy steps". Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 113.Jump up ^ "Gun control takes a back seat to the economy, the deficit and taxes". Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 114.Jump up ^ New York Times editorial board (December 1, 2008). "The Gun Lobby's Loss". The New York Times. Retrieved December 3, 2008. 115.Jump up ^ Washington Post editorial board (March 22, 2014). "Guns are a health-care issue". Washington Post. Retrieved April 7, 2014. 116.Jump up ^ Los Angeles Times editorial board (March 23, 2014). "Why NRA opposition shouldn't doom Obama's surgeon general nominee: The group is wrong to attack Dr. Vivek Hallegere Murthy over his support for gun control". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 7, 2014. 117.Jump up ^ USA Today editorial board (February 10, 2013). "Enact universal background checks: Our view". USA Today. Retrieved April 7, 2014. 118.Jump up ^ Pittsburgh Post-Gazette editorial board (December 26, 2012). "NRA nonsense: LaPierre speaks for gun makers, not gun owners". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved January 3, 2013. 119.Jump up ^ "Bloomberg Throws Punch at NRA, Obama: Bloomberg says NRA "encourages behavior that causes things like Connecticut" shooting". ABC News. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 120.Jump up ^ ROBILLARD, KEVIN. "Frank Luntz: NRA not listening to public". Politico. Retrieved 2013-01-03. 121.Jump up ^ Poor, Jeff. "Ann Coulter rails against NRA's Wayne LaPierre". The Daily Caller. Retrieved 2013-01-03. 122.Jump up ^ Butterfield, Fox (May 8, 1995). "TERROR IN OKLAHOMA: ECHOES OF THE N.R.A.; Rifle Association Has Long Practice In Railing Against Federal Agents". New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2014. 123.Jump up ^ Bush, George H.W. (May 11, 1995). "Letter of Resignation Sent By Bush to Rifle Association". New York Times. Retrieved April 7, 2014. 124.Jump up ^ "NRA Apologizes for 'Jack Boot' Letter" Seattle Times (AP) 05/18/95 http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/archive/?date=19950518&slug=2121718 125.Jump up ^ Knox, Olivier. "Christie: NRA ad with Obama daughters 'reprehensible'". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2013-01-19. 126.Jump up ^ Cornwell, Susan. "Exclusive: NRA senior lobbyist says attack ad was "ill-advised"". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-01-25. 127.Jump up ^ "A Letter From Larry Pratt To The Directors Of The NRA". Gunowners.org. Retrieved 2010-11-21. 128.Jump up ^ The National Rifle Association of America Bylaws. Inside front cover, organization summary: NRA. 2012. 129.Jump up ^ Staff. "Kurt Russell". AskMen.com. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 130.Jump up ^ Coleman, Christina. "Gun Show: Guess Which Celebrities Are NRA Members?". Global Grind. Retrieved 16 April 2013. 131.Jump up ^ Shropshire, Terry. "Celebrity members of the NRA gun group". Rollingout.com. Retrieved 16 April 2013. Further reading Anderson, Jack. Inside the NRA: Armed and Dangerous. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Dove, 1996. ISBN 0-7871-0677-1. Brennan, Pauline Gasdow, Alan J. Lizotte, and David McDowall. "Guns, Southernness, and Gun Control". Journal of Quantitative Criminology 9, no. 3 (1993): 289–307. Bruce, John M., and Clyde Wilcox, eds. The Changing Politics of Gun Control. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998. ISBN 0-8476-8614-0, ISBN 0-8476-8615-9. Carter, Gregg Lee, ed. Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law (3rd ed. 2012) excepr and text search Carter, Gregg Lee. Gun Control in the United States: A Reference Handbook (2006) 408pp Davidson, Osha Gray. Under Fire: The NRA and the Battle for Gun Control, 2nd ed. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1998. ISBN 0-87745-646-1. Edel, Wilbur. Gun Control: Threat to Liberty or Defense against Anarchy? Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 1995. ISBN 0-275-95145-6. Feldman, Richard. Ricochet: Confessions of a Gun Lobbyist (John Wiley, 2011) excerpt and text search Goss, Kristin A. Disarmed: The Missing Movement for Gun Control in America (Priceton Studies in American Politics) (2008) excerpt and text search Langbein, Laura I., and Mark A. Lotwis, "Political Efficacy of Lobbying and Money: Gun Control in the U.S. House, 1986". Legislative Studies Quarterly 15 (August 1990): 413–40. LaPierre, Wayne R. Guns, Crime, and Freedom. Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1994. ISBN 0-89526-477-3. McGarrity, Joseph P., and Daniel Sutter. "A Test of the Structure of PAC Contracts: An Analysis of House Gun Control Votes in the 1980s". Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 67 (2000). Melzer, Scott. Gun Crusaders: The NRA's Culture War (New York University Press, 2009) 336 pp. online Raymond, Emilie. From My Cold, Dead Hands: Charlton Heston and American Politics (2006) excerpt and text search Spitzer, Robert J. The Politics of Gun Control, 2nd ed. New York: Chatham House Publishers, 1998. ISBN 1-56643-072-0. Sugarmann, Josh. National Rifle Association: Money, Firepower, and Fear. Washington, D.C.: National Press Books, 1992. ISBN 0-915765-88-8. Trefethen, James B., and James E. Serven. Americans and Their Guns: The National Rifle Association Story Through Nearly a Century of Service to the Nation. Harrisburg, Penn.: Stackpole Books, 1967. Utter, Glenn H., ed. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press, 2000. ISBN 1-57356-172-X. online, 378pp Winkler, Adam. Gunfight: The Battle over the Right to Bear Arms in America (2011) excerpt and text search External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to National Rifle Association. Official website (US) FBI file on the NRA Non-profit profile at GuideStar Lobbyist profile at OpenSecrets.org NRA Whittington Center Raton [hide] v· t· e Gun interest groups in the U.S. Pro-gun rights Citizens Committee for the Right to Keep and Bear Arms· Gun Owners' Action League· Gun Owners of America· Handgun Club of America· Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership· Law Enforcement Alliance of America· Liberty Belles· National Association for Gun Rights· National Rifle Association· National Shooting Sports Foundation· Pink Pistols· Saint Gabriel Possenti Society· Second Amendment Foundation· Second Amendment Sisters· Students for Concealed Carry on Campus Pro-gun control American Academy of Pediatrics· Americans for Responsible Solutions· Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence· Coalition to Stop Gun Violence· Faiths United to Prevent Gun Violence· Joyce Foundation· Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence· League of Women Voters· Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition· Moms Demand Action for Gun Sense in America· National Gun Victims Action Council· Stop Handgun Violence· Violence Policy Center Coordinates: 38°51′47″N 77°20′7.8″W Categories: National Rifle Association 501(c)(3) nonprofit organizations 501(c)(4) nonprofit organizations Civil rights organizations in the United States Firearms-related organizations Gun rights advocacy groups in the United States Lobbying organizations in the United States Magazine publishing companies of the United States Nonpartisan organizations in the United States Non-profit organizations based in Virginia Organizations established in 1871 Shooting in the United States 1871 establishments in the United States Hobbyist organizations Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read View source View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Tools Print/export Languages Català Dansk Deutsch Español Esperanto فارسی Français 한국어 Íslenska Italiano עברית Nederlands 日本語 Norsk bokmål Polski Português Русский Suomi Svenska Українська 中文 Edit links This page was last modified on 9 April 2014 at 01:27. 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KDKA-TV From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2010) KDKA-TV KDKA.png Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania United States Branding KDKA (general) KDKA-TV News (newscasts) Slogan Expect more (general/news) Your Steeler station (during NFL season) Channels Digital: 25 (UHF) Virtual: 2 (PSIP) Subchannels 2.1 CBS Affiliations CBS (O&O) Owner CBS Corporation (CBS Broadcasting, Inc.) First air date January 11, 1949; 65 years ago Call letters' meaning derived from sister station KDKA radio Sister station(s) KDKA, KDKA-FM, WBZZ, WDSY-FM, WPCW Former callsigns WDTV (1949–1955) Former channel number(s) Analog: 3 (VHF, 1949–1952) 2 (VHF, 1952–2009) Former affiliations DuMont (1949–1955) NBC (secondary, 1949–1957) ABC (secondary, 1949–1958) Transmitter power 1000 kW Height 311 m (1,020 ft) Facility ID 25454 Transmitter coordinates 40°29′38″N 80°1′9″W Licensing authority FCC Public license information: Profile CDBS Website pittsburgh.cbslocal.com KDKA-TV, channel 2, is a CBS owned-and-operated television station located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. The station is owned by the CBS Television Stations subsidiary of CBS Corporation, as part of a duopoly with CW station WPCW (channel 19). The two stations share studios located at the Gateway Center in downtown Pittsburgh, KDKA-TV's transmitter located in the Perry North neighborhood of Pittsburgh. KDKA-TV is available on cable television in the Johnstown, Altoona, and Wheeling areas, as well as several other out-of-market cable systems in northwestern Pennsylvania, northwestern Maryland, northeastern Ohio, and North-Central West Virginia. The furthest south KDKA is carried on cable is in Beverly, West Virginia.[1] Contents [hide] 1 Early history 1.1 DuMont origins 1.2 Dealing with competition 1.3 Westinghouse enters 2 Digital television 2.1 Digital channels 2.2 Analog-to-digital conversion 3 Programming 3.1 Syndicated talk shows 3.2 Local shows 3.3 Seasonal 3.4 Former 3.5 Pittsburgh Steelers 4 News operation 4.1 Ratings 4.2 News/Station Presentation 4.3 Newscast Titles 4.4 Station Slogans 4.5 News Music Packages 4.6 On-air staff 4.6.1 Current on-air staff[20] 4.6.2 Notable former on-air staff 5 References 6 External links Early history[edit] DuMont origins[edit] WDTV broadcast of We, the People on April 18, 1952. The guest is New York Yankees player Bill Bevens. The station went on the air on January 11, 1949, as WDTV ("W DuMont TeleVision") on channel 3, it was owned and operated by the DuMont Television Network.[2] It was the 51st television station in the U.S. and the third and last DuMont-owned station to sign on the air, behind WABD (now WNYW) in New York City and WTTG in Washington, D.C. To mark the occasion, a live television special aired that day from 8:30 to 11 p.m. ET on WDTV, which began with a one-hour local program broadcast from Syria Mosque in Pittsburgh. The remainder of the show featured live segments from DuMont, CBS, NBC, and ABC with Arthur Godfrey, Milton Berle, DuMont host Ted Steele, and many other celebrities.[3] The station also represented a milestone in the television industry, providing the first "network" that included Pittsburgh and 13 other cities from Boston to St. Louis.[4] WDTV was one of the last stations to receive a construction permit before the Federal Communications Commission-imposed four-year freeze on new television station licenses. When the release of the FCC's Sixth Report and Order ended the license freeze in 1952, DuMont was forced to give up its channel 3 allocation to alleviate interference with nearby stations broadcasting on the frequency. WDTV moved its facilities to channel 2 on November 23, 1952.[5] Shortly after moving, it was the first station in the country to broadcast 24 hours a day, seven days a week, advertising that its 1:00-7:00 a.m. "Swing Shift Theatre" served the "200,000 workers [in their viewing area] who finish shift work at midnight."[6] DuMont's network of stations on coaxial cable stretched from Boston to St. Louis. These stations were linked together via AT&T's coaxial cable feed with the sign-on of WDTV allowing the network to broadcast live programming to all the stations at the same time. Stations not yet connected to the coaxial cable received kinescope recordings via physical delivery.[citation needed] The DuMont Television Network in 1949. Dealing with competition[edit] Until the end of the freeze, WDTV's only competition came in the form of distant signals from stations in Johnstown, Altoona, Wheeling, West Virginia and Youngstown, Ohio. However, Pittsburgh saw two UHF stations launch during 1953 – ABC affiliate WENS-TV (channel 16, later to become WINP-TV), and WKJF-TV (channel 53, later to become WPGH-TV), an independent station. At the time, UHF stations could not be viewed without the aid of an expensive, set-top converter, and the picture quality was marginal at best with one. UHF stations in the area faced an additional problem because Pittsburgh is located in a somewhat rugged dissected plateau, and the reception of UHF stations is usually poor in such terrain. These factors played a role in the short-lived existences of both WKJF and WENS.[citation needed] Although Pittsburgh was the sixth largest market in the country (behind New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Washington-Baltimore), the other VHF stations in town were slow to develop. This was because the major cities in the Upper Ohio Valley are so close together that they must share the VHF band. After the FCC lifted the license freeze in 1952, it refused to grant any new commercial VHF construction permits to Pittsburgh in order to give the smaller cities in the area a chance to get on the air. WDTV had a de facto monopoly on Pittsburgh television. Like its sister stations WABD and WTTG, it was far stronger than the DuMont network as a whole. According to network general manager Ted Bergmann, WDTV brought in $4 million a year, which was more than enough to keep the network afloat. Owning the only readily viewable station in such a large market gave DuMont considerable leverage in getting its programs cleared in large markets where it did not have an affiliate. As CBS, NBC and ABC had secondary affiliations with WDTV, this was a strong incentive to stations in large markets to clear DuMont's programs or risk losing valuable advertising in the sixth-largest market. Also, NBC affiliates from Johnstown (WJAC-TV) and Wheeling (WTRF-TV, itself now affiliated with CBS) were able to be received in Pittsburgh and a CBS affiliate from Steubenville, Ohio (WSTV-TV, now NBC affiliate WTOV-TV) was also able to be received there as well. CBS, in fact, actually attempted to purchase WSTV-TV's license before it went on the air and move its license to Pittsburgh due to the close proximity between Pittsburgh and Steubenville (At the time less than an hour apart by car; the completion of the Penn-Lincoln Parkway in 1964 reduced that time to about a half hour driving time today.), but the FCC turned CBS down. The Wheeling/Steubenville TV market, despite its very close proximity to Pittsburgh and overlapping signals, remains a separate market by FCC standards today. WDTV aired all DuMont network shows live and "cherry-picked" the best shows from the other networks, airing them on kinescope on an every-other-week basis. WDTV's sign-on was also significant because it was now possible to feed live programs from the East to the Midwest and vice versa. In fact, its second broadcast was the activation of the coaxial cable linking New York City and Chicago. It would be another two years before the West Coast received live programming, but this was the beginning of the modern era of network television.[citation needed] Westinghouse enters[edit] KDKA-TV's studio building at One Gateway Center in Pittsburgh. The station has been housed in this facility since 1956.[7] By 1954, DuMont was in serious financial trouble. Paramount Pictures, which owned a stake in DuMont, vetoed a merger with ABC, who had merged with Paramount's former theater division United Paramount Theaters a year before. A few years earlier, the FCC had ruled that Paramount controlled DuMont and there were still lingering questions about whether UPT had actually broken off from Paramount. Paramount did not want to risk the FCC's wrath. Meanwhile, Pittsburgh-based Westinghouse Electric Corporation had been competing with local politicians to acquire the non-commercial channel 13 license from the FCC, as no other Pittsburgh-allocated VHF station would be signing on for the foreseeable future. After launching WBZ-TV in Boston in 1948 and purchasing two other television stations, Westinghouse was growing impatient with not having a station in its own home market. Westinghouse later offered a compromise plan to the FCC, in which the Commission would grant Westinghouse the channel 13 license; Westinghouse would then "share" the facility with the educational licensee. Finding the terms unacceptable, Pittsburgh attorney Leland Hazard called Westinghouse CEO Gwilym Price to ask him if he should give up on his fight for public television. Price said that Hazard should keep fighting for it, giving Westinghouse backing for the station that would eventually become WQED.[8] Westinghouse then turned its attention to WDTV, offering DuMont a then-record $9.75 million for the station in late 1954. Desperate for cash, DuMont promptly accepted Westinghouse's offer.[9] While the sale gave DuMont a short-term cash infusion, it eliminated DuMont's leverage in getting clearances in other major markets. Within two years, the DuMont network was no more. After the sale closed in January 1955, Westinghouse changed WDTV's call letters to KDKA-TV, after Westinghouse's pioneering radio station KDKA (1020 AM).[10] As such, it became one of the few stations east of the Mississippi River with a "K" call sign. The WDTV calls now reside on a CBS affiliate located 130 miles south of Pittsburgh in Weston, West Virginia, which is unrelated to the current KDKA-TV. That station, which signed on after KDKA-TV adopted its current callsign, adopted those calls "in honor" of KDKA-TV. As KDKA radio had long been an affiliate of the NBC Blue Network (Westinghouse was a co-founder of RCA, NBC's then-parent company), it was expected that KDKA-TV would eventually become a primary affiliate of the NBC television network. But the network was seeking to purchase Westinghouse's Philadelphia stations, KYW radio and WPTZ (now KYW-TV). When Westinghouse balked, NBC threatened to pull its programming from WPTZ and Boston's WBZ-TV unless Westinghouse agreed to trade its Philadelphia properties for NBC's WTAM-AM-FM and WNBK in Cleveland. The decision would lead to an acrimonious relationship between Westinghouse and NBC in later years.[11][12] Two years after the ownership change, channel 2 became a primary affiliate of the higher-rated CBS network instead.[13] KDKA-TV retained secondary affiliations with NBC until WIIC-TV (channel 11, now WPXI) signed on in 1957, and ABC until WTAE-TV (channel 4) signed on in 1958. KDKA-TV became the flagship station of Westinghouse's broadcasting arm, Group W. On November 22, 1963, newscaster Bill Burns provided almost three hours of live coverage after the shooting of President John F. Kennedy.[14] Over the years, channel 2 pre-empted moderate amounts of CBS programming. At one point, from the early 1960s to July 1990, the station did not clear As The World Turns. At the same time, WTAJ-TV in Altoona had run the program and was viewable in the eastern part of the Pittsburgh market. Also, CBS affiliate WTRF-TV in Wheeling, West Virginia was viewable in Pittsburgh and to the west. Until 1978, the show ran on WPGH and for a few years after that, it ran on WPTT-TV (channel 22). KDKA-TV also preempted the daytime game shows and reruns from CBS at various points during the 1970s. KDKA also produced plenty of local programs such as Evening Magazine, Pittsburgh Talks, and local newscasts. The station also occasionally preempted CBS primetime programs for a syndicated movie, local news special, or sports during the years the station had broadcast rights to Pittsburgh Pirates baseball and Pittsburgh Penguins hockey. Weekend pre-emptions included a small portion of Saturday and Sunday morning cartoons, and Sunday morning religious programs. In 1993, KDKA stopped running CBS This Morning and instead ran Disney's syndicated cartoon block. Less than a year later, Westinghouse made a long-term deal with CBS to convert the entire five-station Group W television unit to a group-wide CBS affiliation. Part of this agreement included a deal to stop preempting any CBS shows, except for extended breaking news coverage or local news events beginning in 1995. KDKA-TV continued preempting moderate amounts of programming into 1995. In the fall of 1995, channel 2 began running the entire CBS lineup in pattern, as it, and sister station KPIX-TV in San Francisco, were already affiliated with the network. In early 1996, Westinghouse acquired CBS, making KDKA-TV a CBS owned-and-operated station, after four decades as being simply a CBS affiliate. In 1997, Westinghouse became CBS Corporation, which would then merge with Viacom (which, ironically, has been Paramount's parent since 1994) in 2000, making KDKA a sister station with Pittsburgh UPN affiliate WNPA-TV (channel 19, now CW station WPCW). Five years later, Viacom became CBS Corporation and spun off a new Viacom. In August 2007, KDKA-TV unveiled a new image campaign, entitled Your Home, with music and lyrics performed by singer-songwriter Bill Deasy. The promo features scenes of Pittsburgh and its surrounding areas, as well as three of the station's personalites. In September 2007, the station unveiled another promo featuring the Joe Grushecky song "Coming Home". Later, a third spot, "Long Way Home", was introduced, featuring the voice of Kelsey Friday.[15] Digital television[edit] Digital channels[edit] Channel Video Aspect PSIP Short Name Programming[16] 2.1 1080i 16:9 KDKA 2. Main KDKA-TV programming / CBS Analog-to-digital conversion[edit] KDKA-TV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 2, on June 12, 2009, the official date in which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate, during that night's broadcast of the Late Show with David Letterman. The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 25.[17] Before they turned off their analog signal and go to nightlight, they show a clip of what they were om the present to the time WDTV aired. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former VHF analog channel 2. In July 2009, the station applied to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to operate two repeater signals: channel 31 in Morgantown, West Virginia and channel 40 in Johnstown.[18] Programming[edit] Syndicated talk shows[edit] As a Westinghouse-owned station, KDKA carried the numerous syndicated talk shows produced by its parent company, including The Merv Griffin Show, The Mike Douglas Show, and Hour Magazine. Later, KDKA carried The Oprah Winfrey Show during its first 9 nationally syndicated seasons (1986-1995), airing the show weekdays at 5 PM. In 1989, KDKA acquired the rights to The Sally Jessy Raphael Show, airing it weekdays at 9 AM and Phil Donahue weekdays at 4 PM, respectively. However, due to the poor ratings of Donahue in the Pittsburgh market, KDKA showed strong interest in new talk shows such as The Ricki Lake Show and The Gordon Elliott Show. Due to KDKA being owned by CBS, the station airs the entire network lineup in order. Sally & Donahue moved to WTAE in 1993, and two years later, KDKA debuted a 5:00 PM newscast, at which point Oprah Winfrey also moved to WTAE, airing at 4:00 PM. In 1997, The Sally Jessy Raphael Show returned to KDKA, and once again was given the 9 AM time slot, where it remained until its cancellation in 2002. Sally was a success in the Pittsburgh area, even beating Montel Williams on WPXI in the 1990s. Local shows[edit] The KDKA-TV newscast logo as seen during its opening.Hometown High-Q (2000–present): airs Saturdays at 11 a.m. - "quiz bowl" format show with three teams composed of local high school students #1 Cochran Sports Showdown (1998–present): airs Sundays at 11:35 p.m. – sports talk show KD/PG Sunday Edition: airs Sundays at 8:30 a.m. - public affairs program The Lynne Hayes-Freeland Show: airs Sundays at 6 a.m. - public affairs program Pittsburgh Today Live: airs weekdays 9:00-10:00 a.m. - Kristine Sorensen and Jon Burnett are the hosts, with Dennis Bowman for weather; local general interest program The Sunday Business Page: airs Sundays at 6:30 a.m. - public affairs program Your Pittsburgh: airs weeknights 7:30-8:00 p.m. - hosted by Kimberly Gill and David Highfield; entertainment program Seasonal[edit] The Children's Hospital Free-Care Fund (1954–present; airs during the holiday season) - yearly pledge drive Hometown Holiday Lights - Series aired during KDKA's newscasts; contest between local families with Christmas displays at their residence. McDonald's Steeler Kickoff (during the NFL season) - Sundays at 11:30 a.m. - Pittsburgh Steelers pre-game show hosted by Bob Pompeani and Edmund Nelson. Steelers Huddle (September 19, 2009–present; airs during the NFL season) - Saturdays at 11:35 p.m. - Bob Pompeani and a rotating member of the Pittsburgh Steelers. Steelers Trivia Challenge (July 16, 2005–present) - Saturdays at 11:35 p.m. - Bob Pompeani hosts a "quiz bowl" format, modeled after Hometown High-Q, with three teams composed of three Pittsburgh Steelers fans who answer team-related trivia questions. The show runs for nine weeks (mid-July to mid-September). Verizon Extra Point (airs during the NFL season) - Pittsburgh Steelers post-game show after CBS broadcasts, hosted by Bob Pompeani and Edmund Nelson. Former[edit] Evening Magazine (August 1, 1977 – October 12, 1990) Giant Eagle High School Sports Advantage The Jerome Bettis Show (September 12, 1998 – February 4, 2006) The Hines Ward Show (September 2, 2006 – January 31, 2009) Mario Lemieux Celebrity Golf Invitational Pittsburgh 2Day (1978–January 19, 1990) Pittsburgh Pirates baseball (1957–1994) Pittsburgh Penguins hockey (1989–1997) Wake Up With Larry Richert (1988–1990) Pittsburgh Steelers[edit] As CBS holds the broadcast contract with the NFL to show games involving AFC teams, KDKA-TV has been the official broadcaster of most Pittsburgh Steelers games since 1998, and serves as the team's flagship station. The team's preseason games that are not nationally televised are also shown on KDKA. KDKA began its relationship with the Steelers in 1962, when CBS first started the leaguewide television package. The Steelers are one of three AFC teams that predate the AFC's basis league, the American Football League, and so KDKA, and not WTAE-TV or WIIC-TV (now WPXI), carried Steelers road games (home games were blacked out locally under all circumstances until 1973, when sold-out home games began to be allowed on local television) – the AFL had television contracts with ABC, and later, NBC. Due to the NFL rules of the time, after the AFL-NFL merger, KDKA did not broadcast any Steelers games from 1970 to 1972. Beginning in 1973, KDKA was allowed to air any Steelers games in which they hosted a team from the National Football Conference, which contained most of the old-line National Football League teams. KDKA also broadcast two Steeler championship wins, Super Bowl X in 1976 and Super Bowl XIV in 1980. Since the Steelers have sold out every home game starting in 1972, no blackouts have been required. In the meantime, from 1970 to 1997, channel 11 aired most Steelers games. When the NFC package moved from CBS to Fox in 1994, WPGH-TV aired the Steelers games that had before aired on KDKA, leaving the senior station without Steelers games for four years. Today, and in general since 1970, the only exceptions to all the above are when the Steelers play at night. Their Monday Night Football games have always aired locally on WTAE, first when ABC had the rights, and since 2006, on ESPN. WTAE also aired simulcasts of their games aired as part of ESPN Sunday Night Football from 1987 to 2005. The NFL requires games on cable channels to be simulcast over-the-air in the markets of the participating teams (again with the home team's broadcast subject to blackout). WTAE has simulcast ESPN-aired games because ESPN is 20% owned by WTAE's owners, Hearst Corporation – their ABC stations have right of first refusal for these simulcasts. Games on TNT and NFL Network have aired on various stations in the area.[citation needed] News operation[edit] [icon] This section requires expansion with: further information on the history of KDKA-TV's news department. (August 2013) KDKA-TV presently broadcasts 34½ hours of locally produced newscasts each week (with six hours on weekdays, three hours on Saturdays and 1½ hours on Sundays); KDKA also produces 27 hours of local newscasts each week for CW owned-and-operated sister station WPCW, in the form of an hour-long extension of KDKA's weekday morning newscast at 7 a.m. and a nightly 35-minute newscast at 10 p.m. In 2001, KDKA-TV began producing a 10 p.m. newscast on WNPA (now WPCW); in 2005, it added a two-hour weekday morning newscast from 7-9 a.m. on that station (which was later reduced to one hour from 7-8 a.m.). On June 16, 2009, KDKA-TV began broadcasting its local newscasts in high definition during its noon broadcast, with the introduction of a new set and weather center. Like rival WTAE, only video from in-studio cameras is broadcast in HD while most of the content, including field reports and video footage, are in pillarboxed 4:3 standard definition. On September 1, 2010, KDKA-TV debuted the standardized CBS O&O graphics and music package ("The CBS Enforcer Music Collection" by Gari Media Group). Ratings[edit] As of February 2013, KDKA-TV is the most watched news station in the hours of noon, 4, 5, 6 and 11 p.m. However, WTAE is the most watched news program in the Pittsburgh area in the hours of 5, 6 a.m. WPXI is most watched at the 10 p.m. time slot on WPGH-TV.[19] News/Station Presentation[edit] Newscast Titles[edit] The Esso Reporter (1949-1960s) TV-2 Eyewitness News (1960s-1996) KDKA-TV News (1996–present) Station Slogans[edit] Here's 2 Pittsburgh Renaissance Two (1983) KD and You (1986-1990) The Tri-State News Leader Always Taking the Lead (early 1990s-1996) The Hometown Advantage (1996-2005) Local News First (2005-2007) Your Home (2007-) Expect More (2013-) News Music Packages[edit] From Russia With Love: 007 (John Barry) (19??-19??) Barbarella: The Pill (Bob Crewe, Charles Fox) (19??-19??) WBZ 1970s Telesound Theme (Telesound) (19??-19??) Look For Us (Telesound) (19??-19??) We're 4 (Klein &) (1979-1984) The News Image & The News Image Plus (Tuesday Productions) (1984-1992) Advantage (Gari Media Group) (1992-1997) Signature Theme Package (Jon Gorr Music) (1997-1998) KDKA-TV Prime (SoundByte, Inc.) (1998-2010) The CBS Enforcer Music Collection (Gari Media Group) (2010–present) On-air staff[edit] Current on-air staff[20][edit] AnchorsJennifer Antkowiak - weekday mornings (4:30-7:00 on KDKA and 7:00-8:00 a.m. on WPCW) Rick Dayton - weekday mornings (4:30-7:00 and 7:00-8:00 a.m. on WPCW) Kimberly Gill - weekdays at noon and 4:00 p.m.; also co-host of Your Pittsburgh Susan Koeppen - weeknights at 6:00 and 11:00 p.m.; also consumer reporter Paul Martino - Saturdays at 6:00, Sundays at 6:30 and weekends at 10:00 (WPCW) and 11:00 p.m.; also weekday reporter Trina Orlando - Saturday mornings (6:00-8:00 a.m.); fill-in anchor Ken Rice - weeknights at 5:00, 10:00 (WPCW) and 11:00 p.m. Stacy Smith - weekdays at noon and 4:00 and weeknights at 6:00 p.m.; host of KD/PG Sunday Edition Kristine Sorensen - weeknights at 5:00 p.m.; host of Pittsburgh Today Live (weekday mornings at 9:00 a.m.) Brenda Waters - Saturday mornings (6:00-8:00 a.m.); also reporter Weather teamJeff Verszyla - chief meteorologist; weekdays at 4:00 and weeknights at 5:00, 6:00, 10:00 (WPCW) and 11:00 p.m. Dennis Bowman (AMS and NWA Seals of Approval) - meteorologist; weekday mornings (4:30-7:00 on KDKA and 7:00-8:00 a.m. on WPCW) and weekdays at noon; also co-host of Pittsburgh Today Live (weekday mornings at 9:00 a.m.) Jon Burnett - meteorologist; Saturday mornings (6:00-8:00 a.m.) and Saturdays at 6:00, Sundays at 6:30 and weekends at 10:00 (WPCW) and 11:00 p.m.; also hosts Pittsburgh Today Live (weekday mornings at 9:00 a.m.) Kristin Emery (AMS and NWA Seals of Approval) - fill-in meteorologist Dave Trygar (AMS Seal of Approval) - freelance/fill-in meteorologist Sports teamBob Pompeani - sports director; weekdays at 6:00, 10:35 (The Nightly Sports Call on WPCW) and 11:00 p.m.; also host of KDKA Sunday Sports Showdown Jory Rand - sports anchor; Saturdays at 6:00, Sundays at 6:30 and weekends at 10:35 (The Nightly Sports Call on WPCW) and 11:00 p.m., also sports reporter Mike Zappone - fill-in sports anchor/sports reporter/producer (various times) Reporters Heather Abraham - general assignment reporter Bob Allen - general assignment reporter Sarah Arbogast - traffic/transportation reporter Dave Crawley - "KD Country" reporter Jon Delano - money and politics editor Kym Gable - freelance reporter (also a spokeswoman for Comcast) Marty Griffin - investigative reporter ("KDKA Investigators") Ross Guidotti - general assignment reporter Harold Hayes - general assignment reporter Lynne Hayes-Freeland - general assignment reporter David Highfield - general assignment reporter; also co-host of Your Pittsburgh Ralph Iannotti - general assignment reporter Mary Robb Jackson - general assignment reporter Paul Martino - general assignment reporter Trina Orlando - Westmoreland County bureau chief Andy Sheehan - investigative reporter ("KDKA Investigators") John Shumway - general assignment reporter; also heard on KDKA Radio Dr. Maria Simbra - medical reporter Notable former on-air staff[edit] Susan Barnett - anchor (1999–2003; last at KYW-TV in Philadelphia from 2006 to 2013)[21] Bill Burns - anchor (1953–1989; died in 1997)[22] Patti Burns - anchor/reporter (1974–1997; died in 2001)[23] Don Cannon - anchor/reporter (1999–2008) Bill Currie - sports reporter (1971-1985, died on February 11, 2008) Rehema Ellis - (She began broadcast career at KDKA) Donna Hanover - hosted Evening Magazine (1977–1980, was first her major market television experience; Hanover served as a news anchor in New York; married New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani, both have since divorced)[citation needed] Patrice King Brown - anchor and former Pittsburgh 2Day host (1978–2011; retired on January 28, 2011) Ron Klink - weekend anchor/reporter (1977–1991; was elected as a United States Representative (D-PA), but lost his bid for the U.S. Senate; now running a lobbying firm in Washington, D.C.) Bob Kudzma - weatherman (1968–2002) Jim Lokay - traffic and transportation reporter (2005–2011, now at WCVB-TV in Boston) Vic Miles - weekend anchor/reporter (1966–1971, later worked at WCBS-TV in New York City;[24] died on October 12, 2011) Dennis Miller - contributor and guest host of Evening Magazine (got his first on air experience with KDKA) Paul Moyer - anchor/reporter (1971; later worked at KNBC in Los Angeles) Ron Olsen - reporter/talk show host (1976–1979; later at KTLA in Los Angeles, where he was awarded a Peabody for coverage of the Rodney King beating story; reported internationally on the O.J. Simpson trial for KTLA and Sky TV)[25] Jay Scott - anchor (1976-1978; later anchor at KTTV in Los Angeles) Paul Steigerwald - sports reporter (1987–1998, later the play-by-play announcer for the Penguins on Fox Sports Pittsburgh) Dick Stockton - sports reporter (1967–1971; later play-by-play announcer for NFL on Fox) Brian Sussman - weatherman[when?] Marie Torre - anchor/reporter (1962–1977; died on January 3, 1997) Yvonne Zanos - long-time correspondent from the 1970s whose last position was as KDKA-TV's consumer reporter (died January 12, 2010 at age 60 from ovarian cancer) References[edit] 1.Jump up ^ http://tvlistings.zap2it.com/tvlistings/ZCGrid.do?method=decideFwdForLineup&zipcode=26253&setMyPreference=false&lineupId=WV47645:-&aid=zap2it 2.Jump up ^ "WDTV starts; DuMont outlet debuts in Pittsburgh." Broadcasting - Telecasting, January 17, 1949, pg. 32. [1] 3.Jump up ^ DuMont History website by Clarke Ingram 4.Jump up ^ "Eyewitness: 1949 / TV makes Pittsburgh 'A New Promise'". Post-gazette.com. 2010-05-16. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 5.Jump up ^ "WDTV channel switch." Broadcasting - Telecasting, December 8, 1952, pg. 72. [2] 6.Jump up ^ "We're Making Television History on WDTV," Sponsor, 24 March 1952, 7. 7.Jump up ^ "NRC Convention 08'- Pittsburgh PA". Nrcdxas.org. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 8.Jump up ^ Togyer, Jason. "Pittsburgh Radio & TV Online - Creating 'QED ... at DuMont's expense?". Pbrtv.com. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 9.Jump up ^ "Westinghouse pays record to buy DuMont's WDTV (TV)." Broadcasting - Telecasting, December 6, 1954, pp. 27-28. [3][4] 10.Jump up ^ "WDTV (TV) Pittsburgh changes call to KDKA-TV." Broadcasting - Telecasting, January 31, 1955, pg. 73. [5] 11.Jump up ^ "Philadelphia circle is complete." Broadcasting, Aug. 3, 1964, pg. 23. 12.Jump up ^ "Nine-year history of that trade in Philadelphia." Broadcasting, August 3, 1964, pg. 24-25. 13.Jump up ^ "CBS signs KDKA-TV as basic affiliate." Broadcasting, April 1, 1957, pg. 126. [6] 14.Jump up ^ "Souls who enriched our lives, our region" from Pittsburgh Tribune-Review (December 1, 2002) 15.Jump up ^ "TV Q&A with Rob Owen/KDKA's Image Campaign". post-gazette.com. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 16.Jump up ^ RabbitEars TV Query for KDKA 17.Jump up ^ "DTV Tentative Channel Designations for the First and Second Rounds" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-03-24. 18.Jump up ^ "TV Query Results - Video Division (FCC) USA". Fcc.gov. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 19.Jump up ^ Sciullo, Maria (March 18, 2013). "Ratings race tight for KDKA, WTAE, WPXI news". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 20.Jump up ^ KDKA-TV 2 21.Jump up ^ "Susan Barnett Bio". KYW-TV. Retrieved 9 March 2013. 22.Jump up ^ http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1997/Walter-Spiro-PHILADELPHIA-AP-Walter-Spiro-a-refugee-from/id-5b5a10611e4d7d523b3e278e099af1f5 23.Jump up ^ http://old.post-gazette.com/obituaries/20011101burns1101p2.asp 24.Jump up ^ "Negro Gets TV News Series Show In Pittsburgh." Jet, July 7, 1966. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 25.Jump up ^ "The Peabody Awards | An International Competition for Electronic Media, honoring achievement in Television, Radio, Cable and the Web | Administered by University of Georgia's Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication". Peabody.uga.edu. Retrieved 2011-03-29. External links[edit] Portal icon Pittsburgh portal Portal icon Television portal CBSPittsburgh.com - Official website The early years of Pittsburgh's KDKA-TV Query the FCC's TV station database for KDKA-TV BIAfn's Media Web Database -- Information on KDKA-TV Program Information for KDKA at TitanTV.com Pittsburgh Television history page [show] v· t· e Broadcast television in Southwestern Pennsylvania, Northeastern West Virginia and Far Western Maryland, including Pittsburgh and Morgantown · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · :· · · · :· · :· :· · · · · · · · · · · :· · · · · :· · · [show] v· t· e CBS network affiliates in the state of Pennsylvania · · · · · :· · · · · · · · [show] v· t· e CBS Television Stations (a subsidiary of CBS Corporation) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · (· · ) · (· ) · () [show] v· t· e Owned-and-operated stations of the major television networks of the United States · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 0. 0. [show] v· t· e Major League Baseball on CBS · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Categories: CBS network affiliates Television stations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania CBS Corporation television stations Channel 25 digital TV stations in the United States Channel 2 virtual TV stations in the United States Television channels and stations established in 1949 Westinghouse Broadcasting DuMont Television Network owned-and-operated stations Major League Baseball over-the-air television broadcasters Pittsburgh Pirates broadcasters Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Tools Print/export Languages Bahasa Indonesia Edit links This page was last modified on 13 April 2014 at 14:06. 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